Tunisie: que sont devenus les cyberactivistes ?

Tunisie: que sont devenus les cyberactivistes ?
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Publié le 5 février 2013

Reportage: Frédéric Miara

Montage: Charles D. Fischer

Mixage: Philippe Lahaye

La Révolution de Jasmin a deux ans. Le 14 janvier 2011, le président tunisien Zine El Abidine Ben Ali fuyait vers l'Arabie Saoudite, après 23 ans de règne autoritaire. Premier domino des pays en révolte du Printemps Arabe, la Tunisie doit beaucoup à ses blogueurs. Cette génération Web a su notamment déjouer la censure via les réseaux sociaux. Ces trentenaires sont aujourd'hui des acteurs majeurs de la transition démocratique tunisienne.


Avenue Bourguiba, l'artère principale de Tunis. Les drapeaux tunisiens flottent sur la ville, pour rappeller à ceux qui l'auraient oublié qu'il y a deux ans Zine El Abidine Ben Ali fuyait le pays mettant fin à 23 ans de dictature. La place centrale a été rebaptisée de cette date. Pour ceux qui ont vécu ces événements, une chose a d'abord changé: la liberté d'expression. "Quand on se balladait ici, il y avait un stress avant, raconte Sofiane Bel Haj. C'était la rue la plus fliquée de Tunis avec la présence du Minsitère de l'Intérieur."

 

642Sofiane Bel Haj, ou plutôt Hamadi Kaloutcha (son pseudonyme sur Facebook), peut se promener aujourd'hui en toute quiétude avec sa femme Aïcha. Cyberdissident de la première heure, il était une des bêtes noires des services secrets, dont il déjouait la censure via les réseaux sociaux. Au lendemain de la chute du dictateur, avec d'autres "stars" de la blogosphère, Sofiane El Haj a été consulté par le gouvernement de transition pour élaborer le nouveau code électoral. Il est aussi maintenant courtisé par de nombreux médias locaux qui voient dans les cyberactivistes les journalistes d'investigation de demain.

 

643Dans un pays qui compte deux millions de comptes Facebook sur onze millions d'habitants, la toile est devenue le média préféré des jeunes Tunisiens au détriment des médias traditionnels. Ainsi, Nawaat, un site d'information en ligne, a dans ses rangs des militants des droits de l'homme. Nawaat emploie 5 journalistes à plein temps, et s'attèle à dénoncer les dérives du gouvernement de transition. "On connaît une effervescence extraordinnaire sur le Net tunisien avec ce que cela peut apporter de bien, et ce que cela peut apporter de pire: les rumeurs, la propagande, la contre-propagande, explique Malek Khadraoui, rédacteur en chef de Nawaat.org. Aujourd'hui, Internet est beaucoup utilisé par les partis au pouvoir, principalement le parti islamiste Enahda qui est très structuré sur le Net. Mais globalement, ça reste un espace qui permet l'organisation de la contestation sociale, l'apprentissage de la liberté. Internet est plus que jamais au coeur de la transition démocratique." Nawaat, qui est aussi une ONG, organise aujourd'hui des formations de journalistes-blogueurs à travers tout le pays pour généraliser l'accès à l'information et former les vigies de la démocratie naissante.

 

644D'autres cyberactivistes ont choisi une voie différente depuis la révolution: l'engagement politique. C'est le cas de Slim Amamou, alias Slim 404 sur le Net. Figure célèbre de la blogosphère, il a fait un passage éclair dans le gouvernement de transition comme Ministre de la Jeunesse et des Sports. Aujourd'hui, avec d'autres militants, tous des génies de l'informatique, il a créé le Parti Pirate en Tunisie. Au programme: la démocratie directe sur le Net et des moyens concrets pour la mettre en oeuvre.

 

Cependant, tout n'est pas rose dans la transition démocratique tunisienne: taux de chômage record, indépendance de la justice en question, montée en puissance des salafistes, répression policière aveugle. Ces sujets préoccupent les cyberactivistes et leur donnent l'envie de s'engager plus que jamais.

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